Why the Twenties? Recent scholarship has been pointing out more and more clearly that in Spain, too, the Twenties were a period in which both radical and varied change was being striven for. An obsolete mainstream cultural practice was being confronted by an increasing interest in such novelties as sports, jazz-bands, silent movies or even the first stirrings of feminism. It is the decade of reviews promoting various -isms, from ultraism to surrealism, and of Valle-Inclán's grotesque esperpento, which heralded the fall of Primo de Rivera's dictatorship. The essays assembled here treat some of these and many other aspects. The authors base their contributions on recent criticism and many years of dedication to the field, and propose new directions for fertile future investigations.